Packet Radio Related Links
Packet Radio Primer
- Packet Radio FAQ
What is Amateur Spread Spectrum ?
What is Amateur APRS (Automatic Packet Reporting System) ?
APRS Virtual Meeting Page
- "Introduction to Packet Radio" by Larry Kenney, WB9LOZ
Bibliography: Packet Radio Topics in Professional Journals
Radio-TNC Wiring Diagrams Index
Digital Communication Conferences
- TAPR Packet Status Register Vol 1-52 Index (Articles/Authors)
BBS and Gateways
BBS Hierarchical Addressing Protocol (from TAPR BBS Special Interest Group)
AA4RE BBS Software
& Users Group
PACTOR MBO's & GATEWAYS
F6FBB BBS Software
W0RLI BBS Software
- W2XO Amateur Packet Radio Internet E-Mail Gateway and WWW BBS
Packet to Internet Gateways Bob Nielsen - January 31, 1997
There are several methods that amateurs can use to access the Internet
via packet radio or persons (not necessarily amateurs) can use to access
some amateur stations from the Internet.
PBBS mail to an Internet address or Internet e-mail to an amateur
having access to a PBBS:
To send mail from a packet bulletin board station (PBBS) to an Internet e-mail address, or to receive a package message at your local PBBS from someone sending e-mail from the Internet, please check the web page of W2XO .
Direct Internet access from packet radio gateways
If you are operating a packet radio station running the tcp/ip protocol, and have routing to a gateway in your area, you can set your default routing to that gateway station. If the gateway allows it, you can route Internet email or even access Internet sites via that station (contact your gateway sysop for details and obtaining the required permission). If you are set up for this through your local gateway, you can receive e-mail from the internet by placing an MX record in the master ampr.org domain nameserver database at ucsd.edu. To find out how to place an entry for your tcp/ip station in this database send a message to the database server email@example.com, including the word HELP in the body of your message.
For more information on amateur tcp/ip operation, or to obtain MS-DOS tcp/ip software, see the TAPR software library.
TCP/IP, Linux, and UNIX
- AMPRNet information
Authoritative data for ampr.org domain
Linux AX25-HOWTO, Amateur Radio
Linux HAM HOWTO, Amateur Radio
DxNet : Cluster software for Linux and DOS
The Internet Protocol
The Internet Control Message Protocol
Requirements for IP Version 4 routers
N8UR's General Linux and TCP/IP Amateur Web
CLX DX Packet Cluster Server Software for Linux
- Development of DX cluster protocols and cluster software
AX.25 Amateur Packet-Radio Link-Layer Protocol, Ver 2.2, Nov 1997
AX.25 Amateur Packet-Radio Link-Layer Protocol, Ver 2.0, Oct 1984
YAPP(tm) protocol for Packet Radio binary file transfer.
Toward New Link-Layer Protocols for Amateur Packet Radio & SS.
Phil Karn KA9Q
AX.25 Extensions for Q Bit Support
- AX.29 Protocol Specification (Q Bit Data)
Spread Spectrum Pages
Biblography of Spread Spectrum Communications
Ham Radio Spread Spectrum Page
SS Web sites of interest on Related Technologies
- TAPR FHSS Radio Project Status
Radio Related Links
- 1200 - 9600
- TAPR 9600 baud Land Mobile Modifications
- TAPR 9600 band modem kit
- 9600 Baud Packet Handbook by Mike Curtis, WD6WHR
- 9600 Baud Modifications for ALINCO, ICOM, KENWOOD, MOTOROLA, and YEASU radios
- 9600bps modem in a single FPGA
Baud Packet Radio Modem Design
- Other G3RUH compatible DF9IC, DK9RR, PAR96, NEW PICPAR modems
- 19.2K - 56K
- Equipment options for medium to high-speed packet radio by Barry McLarnon, VE3JF
WA4DSY 56K RF modem
Ottawa pi-2 Syncronous Interface Card for PC
- Beyond 56K
Glenn N6GN's High Speed Packet Page
- Fast (1.2Mb) Packet Radio Net in Slovenia
10GHz Data Link Project
- Computer Science of Cesena Packet Radio Project, 2-34Mb University of Bologna
- TAPR FHSS Radio Project Status
General Digital Communications
PC APRS Documentation
APRS (Automatic Packet Reporting System)
GPS System Standard Positioning Service Signal Spec (pdf 3.0, 1.2Meg, 51 pages)
Annex A, B, & C of GPS Standard Positioning Service Signal Specification (pdf 3.0, 1.3Meg, 57 pages)
NAVSTAR GPS User Equipment Introductionn (pdf 3.0, 2.4Meg, 215 pages)
Various Motorola Oncore Information
TAPR GPS Page
NMEA-0183 and GPS Information by Peter Bennett
- N8UR's GPS and NTP Stuff
Digital Signal Processing
Amateur Digital Signal Processing
DSP and Spectral Analysis by SETI League
- DSP, PSA sound card, DH6HP converter for RTTY, Amtor, Pactor-I.
- Proper tuning of the radio is critical for copying HF digital modes.
Digital Communications Home PagesOrganizations
Regional Digital Organization Home Page
Tucson Amateur Packet Radio (TAPR) Home Page
Amateur Satellite Corp. (AMSAT) Home Page
Amateur Spread Spectrum Page
American Radio Relay League
(Japan) Packet Radio User's Group (PRUG)
Montreal/Western Quebec Packet Radio Web Page
Ottawa ARC (Canada) Packet Radio Home Page
Amiga Amateur Radio User Group
Radio Amateur Telecommunications Society (RATS) Home Page
Texas Packet Radio Society, Inc (& TexNet)
University of Surrey's Satellite Page
Small Satellite Home Page
NORD*LINK Home Page (TheNet)
BayCom Users Page (by Bavarian Packet Radio Group)
FlexNet Group in Darmstadt, Germany
FPAC is a PC program written by F6DWJ and colaboraded on with F6ABJ
Southeastern Emergency Digital Association Networks.
VARPA - Victoria Amateur Packet Radio Association.
Vancouver Area Packet Organisation.
Jean-Paul ROUBELAT, F6FBB BBS Software Page
Brian KO4KS's TNOS Page
High Speed Packet Page
Keith Sproul's MacAPRS Page
NB6Z's HF Digital Web Page
Phil Sussman - N8PS PACTOR NEWS (HF Digital Newsletter)
George Rossopoulos - SV2AGW Windows 95 Packet Software
AEA and Timewave
"InterFlex Systems - PkGOLD and KaGOLD
SCS (Special Communications Systems) inventors of PACTOR
MFJ Enterprises, Inc.
Harper Technologies. Has a display for GPS units.
These sites allow you to connect and download all kinds of packet
The FlexNet FTP Site .
European Packet FTP area .
Vector Board BBS. Extensive collection of files. (fixed hours of operation)
Software, listserver information, and more at
Amateur Radio archive with packet material at ftp.cs.buffalo.edu
Brian ko4ks's archives (ROSE, TNOS) at ftp.lantz.com
Many packet files of the ftp.ucsd.edu site. Protocols, papers, software, etc.
Many of the rec.ham* and rec.radio.amateur* newsgroups are mirrored by a listserver and available in digest form. To receive a list of the gated groups, send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org with a blank subject and a one word message INDEX.
The Boston ARC maintains a majordomo-supervised list welcoming ham packet materials. To subscribe, send a message to email@example.com with a blank subject and the text subscribe ham-tech
Amateur Radio on the Internet
Welcome to Colorado Amateur Radio: Packet/Digital Radio Section
Amateur Radio Web Server at
NORAD Two-Line Element Sets on Celestial BBS
John Langner, WB2OSZ's Slow Scan TV (SSTV) Web Page
Chris Smolenski's Home Page - MAC, numbers station, neat links
Southwestern Louisiana ARC Home Page
Texas ARC Home Page
Engineering and Computer Science Web Sites
Packet Radio Topics in Professional JournalsS. R. Bible, N7HPR - March 26, 1995
Thanks to Steven R. Bible, N7HPR for compiling this bibliography, and for graciously allowing TAPR to publish it on the web. If you have additional references that should be added, please contact Steve.
L. Kleinrock and F. A. Tobagi, "Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part I -- Carrier Sense Multiple-Access Modes and Their Throughput-Delay Characteristics," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-23, No. 12, pp. 1400-1416, Dec. 1975.
F. A. Tobagi and L. Kleinrock, "Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part II -- The Hidden Terminal Problem in Carrier Sense Multiple-Access and the Busy-Tone Solution," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-23, No. 12, pp. 1417-1433, Dec. 1975.
R. E. Kahn, "The Organization of Computer Resources into a Packet Radio Network," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 1, pp. 169-178, Jan. 1977.
______ , "Special Issue on Packet Communication Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 11, Nov. 1978.
L. G. Roberts, "The Evolution of Packet Switching," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 11, pp. 1307-1313, Nov. 1978.
L. Kleinrock, "Principles and Lessons in Packet Communications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 11, pp. 1320-1329, Nov. 1978.
L. Pouzin and H. Zimmermann, "A Tutorial on Protocols," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 11, pp. 1346-1370, Nov. 1978.
F. A. Tobagi, et. al., "Modeling and Measurements Techniques in Packet Communication Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 11, pp. 1423-1447, Nov. 1978.
R. E. Kahn, et. al., "Advances in Packet Radio Technology," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 66, No. 11, pp. 1468-1496, Nov. 1978.
J. M. McQuillan, et. al., "The New Routing Algorithm for the ARPANET," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-28, No. 5, pp. 711-719 , May 1980.
P. R. Karn, et. al., "Packet Radio in the Amateur Service," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. SAC-3, No. 3, pp. 431-439, May 1985.
T. C. Hou and V. O. K. Li, "Transmission Range Control in Multihop Packet Radio Networks," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-34, No. 1, pp. 38-44, Oct. 1986.
______ , "Special Issue on Packet Radio Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 1, Jan. 1987.
B. M. Leiner, et. al, "Issues in Packet Radio Network Design," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 6-20, Jan. 1987.
J. Jubin and J. D. Tornow, "The DARPA Packet Radio Network Protocols," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 21-32, Jan. 1987.
N. Shacham and J. Westcott, "Future Directions in Packet Radio Architectures and Protocols." Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 83-98, Jan. 1987.
F. A. Tobagi, "Modeling and Performance Analysis of Multihop Packet Radio Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 135-155, Jan. 1987.
L. Kleinrock and John Silvester, "Spatial Reuse in Multihop Packet Radio Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 156-166, Jan. 1987.
W. T. Chen and N. F. Huang, "The Strongly Connecting Problem on Multihop Packet Radio Networks," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 293-295, Oct. 1989.
P. E. Bausbacher and J. L. Kearns, "Transmission Parameter Selection in an Adaptive Packet-Radio Network," Proceedings of the Tactical Communications Conference, Vol. 1, Tactical Communications, Challenges of the 1990's, pp.51-68, Apr. 1990.
S. V. Vitalpur, "Evaluation of Adaptive Routing Protocols for Packet Radio Networks," Proceedings of the Tactical Communications Conference, Vol. 1, Tactical Communications, Challenges of the 1990's, pp. 105-115, Apr. 1990.
J. R. Yee and F. M. Shiao, "On Calculating High Throughputs in Multi-Hop Slotted ALOHA Packet Radio Networks," Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM '90, pp. 382-388, Jun. 1990.
R. L. Hamilton and H. C. Yu, "Optimal Routing in Multihop Packet Radio Networks," Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM '90, pp. 389-396, Jun. 1990.
S. Adams, et. al., "A Unified Network approach to the Control of Survivable Multimedia Communication Networks," MILCOM 90, pp. 323-329, Sep./Oct. 1990.
I. M. Ross, "Wireless Network Directions," IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 40-42, Feb. 1991.
D. Hubner, et. al., "A Multihop Protocol for Contacting a Stationary Infrastructure," 41st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 414-419, May 1991.
J. R. Yee and F. M. Shiao, "An Algorithm to find Global Optimal Routing Assignments for a Class of PRNS," ICC 91 - International Conference on Communications, pp. 1604-1608, Jun. 1991.
D. Buchholz, et. al., "Wireless In-Building Network Architecture and Protocols," IEEE Network, pp. 31-38, Nov. 1991.
D. Duchamp, "Issues in Wireless Mobile Computing," Proceedings Third Workshop on Workstation Operating Systems, pp. 2-10, Apr. 1992.
M. El-Tanany, et. al., "Performance Analysis and Design Guidelines of a Mobitex Modem at 8 kb/s," Vehicular Technology Society 42nd VTS Conference, pp. 110-113, May 1992.
R. Esmailzadeh, et. al., "Power Control in Packet Switched Time Division Duplex Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications," Vehicular Technology Society 42nd VTS Conference, pp. 989-992, May 1992.
D. Cohe, et. al., "IP Addressing and Routing in a Local Wireless Network," IEEE INFOCOM '92, pp. 626-632, May 1992.
V. C. M. Leung, "Internetworking Wireless Terminals to Local Area Networks via Radio Bridges," 1992 IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications, pp. 126-129, Jun. 1992.
Y. R. Tsai and J. F. Chang, "Using Spread Spectrum Techniques to Combat Multipath Interence in Mobile Random Accessed Networks," 1992 IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications, pp. 429-432, Jun. 1992.
C. E. Perkins, "Simplified Routing for Mobile Computers Using TCP/IP," Proceedings IEEE Conference on Wireless LAN Implementation, pp. 7-13, Sep.= 1992.
J. Y. C. Cheah, "A Proposed Access Method for the Wireless LAN Standard," The Third IEEE International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications Proceedings, pp. 145-148, Oct. 1992.
L. Van Der Jagt, "A Framework for Specifying a Physical Layer and Medium for Wireless Local Area Networks," The Third IEEE International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications Proceedings, pp. 149-152, Oct. 1992.
G. Vannucci and R. S. Roman, "Measurement Results On Indoor Radio Frequency Re-use at 900 Mhz and 18 Ghz," The Third IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications Proceedings, pp. 308-314, Oct. 1992.
R. Khayata and C. C. Huang, "Characterizing Wireless Indoor Communications: Measurements in the ISM Bands with a Directional Antenna," The Third IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications Proceedings, pp. 315-319, Oct. 1992.
T. S. Yum and K. W. Hung, "Design Algorithms for Multihop Packet Radio Networks with Multiple Directional Antennas Stations," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 40, No. 11, pp. 1716-1724, Nov. 1992.
T. Suzuki and S. Tasaka, "A Performance Comparison of ALOHA-Reservation and PRMA in Integrated Voice and Data Wireless Local Area Networks," TENCON '92 - Technology Enabling Tomorrow, pp. 754-758, Nov. 1992.
T. C. Kwok, "Wireless Networking Requirements of Multimedia Applications," 1st International Conference in Universal Personal Communiations, pp. 15.01.1-15.01.5, Sep./Oct. 1992.
J. L. Wang and J. A. Silvester, "Maximum Number of Independent Paths and Radio Connectivity," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1482-1493, Oct. 1993.=7F
J. Ward and R. T. Compton, "High Throughput Slotted ALOHA Packet Radio with Adaptive Arrays," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 460-469, Mar. 1993.
R. O. LaMaire, et. al., "Analysis of a wireless MAC protocol with Client-Server Traffic," IEEE INFOCOM '93, pp. 429-438, Mar./Apr. 1993.
Z. F. Lansdowne, "A Stopping Rule for Link Failure Detection," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 528-530, Apr. 1993.
L. Hu, "Topology Control for Multihop Packet Radio Networks," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1482-1493, Oct. 1993.
M. Weiser, "Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 36, No. 7, pp. 75-84, Jul. 1993.
R. Tanaka and M. Tsukamoto, "A CLNP-based Protocol for Mobile End Systems within an Area," Proceedings 1993 International Conference on Networking Protocols, pp 64-71, Oct. 1993.
M. Chase and K. Pahlavan, "Performance of DS-CDMA Over Measured Indoor Radio Channels Using Random Orthogonal Codes," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 617-624, Nov. 1993.
G. J. Foschini and Z. Miljanic, "A Simple Distributed Autonomous Power Control Algorithm and its Convergence," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp.. 641-646, Nov. 1993.
A. DeSimone, et. al., "Throughput Performance of Transport-Layer Protocols over Wireless LANs," GLOBECOM '93 - IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, pp. 542-549, Nov./Dec. 1993.
J. L. Sobrinho and J. M. Brazio, "D-MCMA: A New Multiple Access Protocol for Distributed Wireless Local Networks," GLOBECOM '93 - IEEE Global Telecommuniations Conference, pp 70-75, Nov./Dec. 1993.
K. C. Chen and C. H. Lee, "RAP -- A Novel Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Data Networks," GLOBECOM '93 - IEEE Global Telecommuniations Conference, pp. 1713-1717, Nov./Dec. 1993.
R. H. Katz, "Adaption and Mobility in Wireless Information Systems," IEEE Personal Communications, pp. 6-17, First Quarter 1994.
C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, "A Mobile Networking System based on Internet Protocol," IEEE Personal Communications, pp. 32-41, First Quarter 1994.
R. Steele, "The Evolution of Personal Comunications," IEEE Personal Communications, pp. 6-11, Second Quarter 1994.
I. Chlamtac and A. Farago, "Making Transmission Schedules Immune to Topology Changes in Multi-Hop Packet Radio Networks," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 23- 29, Feb. 1994.
D. Hendricks, "Wireless Off-Ramps from the Information Highways," Spring COMPCOM 94, pp. 182-184, Feb./Mar. 1994.
S. Jangi and L. F. Merakos, "Performance Analysis of Reservation Random Access Protocols for Wireless Access Networks," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 42, No. 2/3/4, pp. 1223-1234, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1994.
K. S. Meier-Hellstern, et. al., "Network Protocols for the Cellular Packet Switch," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 42, No. 2/3/4, pp. 1235-1244, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1994.
D. F. Bantz and F. J. Bauchot, "Wireless LAN Design Alternatives," IEEE Network, pp. 43-53, Mar./Apr. 1994.
D. T. Magill, et. al., "Spread-Spectrum Technology for Commercial Applications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 82, No. 4, pp. 572-584, Apr.= 1994.
R. Caceres and L. Iftode, "The effects of Mobility on Reliable Transport Protocols," Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 12-20, Jun. 1994.
B. D. Bradley, et. al., "Simulation Issues for Future Wireless Modems," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 42-53, Jul. 1994.
H. Hashemi, et. al., "Measurements and Modeling of Temporal Variations of the Indoor Radio Propagation Channel," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 733-737, Aug. 1994.
A. Demers, et. al., "MACAW: A Media Access Protocol for Wireless LAN's," SIGCOMM 94, pp. 212-225
N. Abramson, "Multiple Access in Wireless Digital Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 82, No. 9, pp. 1360-1370, Sep. 1994.
H. L. Bertoni, et. al., "UHF Propagation Prediction for Wireless Personal Communications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 82, No. 9, pp. 1333-1359, Sep. 1994.
K. Pahlavan and A. H. Levesque, "Wireless Data Communications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 82, No. 9, pp. 1398-1430, Sep. 1994.
K. C. Chen, "Medium Access Control of Wireless LANs for Mobile Computing," IEEE Network, pp. 50-63, Sep./Oct. 1994.
S. Nanda, et. al., "A Retransmission Scheme for Circuit-Mode Data on Wireless Links," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 12, No. 8, pp. 1338-1352, Oct. 1994.
D. B. Johnson, "Routing in Ad Hoc Networks of Mobile Host," 1994 Workshop on Mobile Computing Systesm and Applications, ???. 1994.
*** Some I have not found yet...
A. Myles and D. Skellern, "Comparing Four IP-based Mobile Host Protocols," Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 349-355, Nov. 1993.
______ , IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 11, No. 6, Aug. 1993.
______ , IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 11, No. 7, Sep. 1993.
M. K. Liu, "Base Station Netowrking in Personal Communications," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 932-939, Jun. 1993.
A. S. Acampora and Z. Zhensheng, "A Throughput/Delay Comparison: Narrowband verse Broadband Wireless LAN's," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 266-274, Aug. 1993.
J. J. C. Chang, et. al., "Wireless Systems and Technologies: An Overview," AT&T Technical Journal, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 11-19, Jul./Aug. 1993.
N. Seshadri, et. al., "Advanced Techniques for Modulation, Error Correction, Channel Equalization, and Diversity," AT&T Technical Journal, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 48-64, Jul./Aug. 1993.